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Scanno di Goro

 


 

The environment

Scannone is a sand bar of 8 km, stretching from the mouth of Po di Goro to Lido di Volano, it formed from sand coming from the South (on the Ferrara coast, due to the sirocco wind, the main wind of the area) and from sand coming from the East (from the mouth of Po di Goro). Scannone is also called “love island” because in the first half of the century, according to the rules of cultural Puritanism, engaged couples had to meet in places that were hidden from prying eyes, and what could be a better place than an island that can only be reached by boat?
Scannone formed in the nineteenth century, but it took its current shape in the Forties. In the Thirties it was slightly more to the North, halfway between the current Scannone area and Po di Goro: the sandbanks of the central eastern area of Sacca, characterized by the presence of reed beds, are the remaining part of this mouth bar. In the Fifties the current Scannone formed, which was divided into Scanno di Goro (a pensinsula that started from the lighthouse of Gorino) and Scanno Piallazza (an island of sand, one kilometer West from Scanno di Goro). Due to the intake of sediments, the two mouth bars joined together and Scannone continued to advance until the early Nineties, when it reached its current length of eight kilometers, about 1.5 km from Lido di Volano. However the advance of Scannone threatens the lagoon, putting it at risk of becoming a swamp with no communication to the sea, with consequent problems of eutrophication and anoxia.
In 1991, to accelerate the intake of sea water into Sacca, a draining station was built in the central area of the mouth bar. In 1992, slightly West from the draining station, an opening was illegally created, and it rapidly extended by hundreds of meters, dividing Scannone again into a peninsula and an island (Pagnoni and Caramori 1999).

 

The flora

Between the water’s edge, with no vegetation (aphytoic area), and the dune area at the center of the mouth bar, there is a kind of herbaceous vegetation that is typical of sand (syntaxonomy: Salsolo-Cakiletum maritimae), a community that consists of annual pioneer halo-nitrophilous species whose characteristic species are Cakile maritima aegyptiaca and Salsola kali, associated to few other species, such as Xantium italicum and the allochthonous Cicloloma atriplicifolia.

On better preserved embryo dunes there are often communities of Agropyron junceum, accompanied by Echinophora spinosa, Eryngium maritimum, Calystegia soldanella and Xantium italicum (syntaxonomy: Echinophoro spinosae-Elymetum farcti). In the depressions that are occupied by a salty aquifer, there are salty meadows with Juncus maritimus (syntaxonomy: Puccinellio festuciformis-Juncetum maritimi), Aster tripolium, Limomnium serotinum and Puccinellia palustris. On the top of the dunes there are thick prairies, mainly characterized by Elytrigia atherica (Corticelli 1999). At the top of the dunes there are often rows of tamarisks (Tamarix gallica) and silverberries (Eleagnus angustifolia), planted as windscreen.

The fauna
The emerged sandbanks of Sacca and Scannone are used by thousands of dunlins (Calidris alpina) and hundreds of knots (Calidris canutus), the latter species is quite rare in Italy. In summer there are many nesting species, some of which are rare nesting species in the Delta area, among which the oystercatcher (Haematopus ostralegus), with 19 couples, the Kentish plover (Charadrius alexandrinus), with 7-25 couples between Scanno di Goro and Volano and the little tern (Sterna albifrons), which nest in the sand depressions of the mouth bars.

 

Visits

Scannone is a National Nature Reserve and it is open to the public only near the lighthouse of Goro. In spring and summer a ferry-boat connects Gorino Veneto to the lighthouse of Goro, where there is a restaurant.

 

Type

Coastal dune areas

Cartography

CTR 1:25.000 - 187SE; 205 NE

Extension

About 1330 ha

Municipality

Goro

Owned by

State property, navy department

Management

Former ASFD, private citizens for the lighthouse area

 

Restrictions
Environmental restriction according to Law 431/1985, the regulation was abrogated (except for Articles 1 ter and 1 quinquies) and substituted by the decree-law 490/1999 that is currently in force.

National nature wildlife reserve called “Dunes and Islands of Sacca di Gorino”, established with the Ministerial Decree of 18/11/1982 (“Gazzetta Ufficiale” no. 339 of December 10, 1982).

Ramsar area called “Dunes and Islands of Sacca di Gorino”, according to the Ministerial Decree of July 13, 1981.

The site lies within the boundaries of the Delta Park, according to the Regional Law 27/1988 and to the Plan of the Volano – Mesola – Goro Station of 1991 and 1997 (the plan of 1991 wrongly identified the site as area B).

Special protection area (IT4060016) called “Sacca di Goro, Dindona Valley, Mouth of Po di Volano” according to the directive 79/409 EEC (4127 ha). Site of community importance called “Sacca di Goro, Po di Goro, Dindona Valley, Mouth of Po di Volano”, identified according to the directive 92/43/EEC (4387 ha).

 

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